Beginning of operation
No biofilm around particles and no biolayer.
Formation of biolayer
(biofilm on the mineral particles, exactly the same as
that observed in ‘trickling filters’ used for aerobic treatment of wastewater).
with use and time.
The biolayer will form more quickly with
greater concentration of aquatic life in the water and larger quantities of
water being treated.
and captured material accumulates.
and captured material starts to restrict flow.
Flow is unacceptably low and surface layer must be cleaned.
Cleaning the MSF will leave biolayer intact.
Visualisation of the microbial colonisation of a slow sand filter using an
Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology
ISSN: 0717-3458 Vol.11 No.2, Issue of April 15, 2008
© 2008 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso -- Chile
Received August 28, 2007 / Accepted December 6, 2007
Esther Devadhanam Joubert
Department of Environmental Sciences
Skinner Street Campus
University of South Africa
Department of Microbiology
University of KwaZulu-Natal
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